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Japan Land Subsidence

Land subsidence and soil liquefaction near Shin-Urayasu Station elevator shaft

Geospatial Information Authority of Japan reported land subsidence on the height of triangulation station measured by GPS from previous value on 14 April 2011.

  • Miyako, Iwate - 0.50 m (1.64 ft)
  • Yamada, Iwate - 0.53 m (1.73 ft)
  • Ōtsuchi, Iwate - 0.35 m (1.14 ft)
  • Kamaishi, Iwate - 0.66 m (2.16 ft)
  • Ōfunato, Iwate - 0.73 m (2.39 ft)
  • Rikuzentakata, Iwate - 0.84 m (2.75 ft)
  • Kesennuma, Miyagi - 0.74 m (2.42 ft)
  • Minamisanriku, Miyagi - 0.69 m (2.26 ft)
  • Oshika Peninsula, Miyagi - 1.2 m (3.93 ft)
  • Ishinomaki, Miyagi - 0.78 m (2.55 ft)
  • Higashimatsushima, Miyagi - 0.43 m (1.41 ft)
  • Iwanuma, Miyagi - 0.47 m (1.54 ft)
  • Sōma, Fukushima - 0.29 m (0.95 ft)

Scientists say that the subsidence is permanent. As a result, the communities in question are now more susceptible to flooding during high tides.

Tsunami Victim Japan 2011

Energy map of the tsunami from NOAA

The earthquake which was caused by 5 to 8 meters upthrust on a 180-km wide seabed at 60 km offshore from the east coast of Tōhoku resulted in a major tsunami which brought destruction along the Pacific coastline of Japan's northern islands and resulted in the loss of thousands of lives and devastated entire towns. The tsunami propagated across the Pacific, and warnings were issued and evacuations carried out. In many countries bordering the Pacific, including the entire Pacific coast of North and South America from Alaska to Chile; however, while the tsunami was felt in many of these places, it caused only relatively minor effects. Chile's section of Pacific coast is one of the furthest from Japan, at about 17,000 km (11,000 mi) away, but still was struck by tsunami waves 2 m (6.6 ft) high. A wave height of 38.9 meters (128 ft) was estimated at Omoe peninsula, Miyako city, Iwate prefecture.


The tsunami warning issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency was the most serious on its warning scale; it rated as a "major tsunami", being at least 3 m (9.8 ft) high. The actual height predicted varied, the greatest being for Miyagi at 6 m (20 ft) high. The tsunami inundated a total area of approximately 561 km2 (217 sq mi) in Japan.

Water column height on 11 March 2011 at DART Station, 690 NM Southeast of Tokyo

The earthquake took place at 14:46 JST around 67 km (42 mi) from the nearest point on Japan's coastline, and initial estimates indicated the tsunami would have taken 10 to 30 minutes to reach the areas first affected, and then areas farther north and south based on the geography of the coastline. Just over an hour after the earthquake at 15:55 JST, a tsunami was observed flooding Sendai Airport, which is located near the coast of Miyagi Prefecture, with waves sweeping away cars and planes and flooding various buildings as they traveled inland. The impact of the tsunami in and around Sendai Airport was filmed by an NHK News helicopter, showing a number of vehicles on local roads trying to escape the approaching wave and being engulfed by it. A 4 m high tsunami hit Iwate Prefecture. Wakabayashi Ward in Sendai was also particularly hard hit. At least 101 designated tsunami evacuation sites were hit by the wave.

Like the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, the damage by surging water, though much more localized, was far more deadly and destructive than the actual quake. There were reports of entire towns destroyed from tsunami-hit areas in Japan, including 9,500 missing in Minamisanriku; one thousand bodies had been recovered in the town by 14 March 2011.

Among several factors causing the high death toll from the tsunami, one was the unexpectedly large size of the water surge. The tsunami walls at several of the affected cities were based on much smaller tsunami heights. Also, many people caught in the tsunami thought that they were located on high enough ground to be safe.

Tsunami flooding on the Sendai Airport runway

Kuji and Ōfunato were almost entirely destroyed Also destroyed was Rikuzentakata, where the tsunami was reportedly three stories high. Other cities reportedly destroyed or heavily damaged by the tsunami include Kamaishi, Miyako, Ōtsuchi, and Yamada (in Iwate Prefecture), Namie, Sōma and Minamisōma (in Fukushima Prefecture) and Shichigahama, Higashimatsushima, Onagawa, Natori, Ishinomaki, and Kesennuma (in Miyagi Prefecture). The most severe effects of the tsunami were felt along a 670-km (420 mi)-long stretch of coastline from Erimo in the north to Ōarai in the south, with most of the destruction in that area occurring in the hour following the earthquake. Near Ōarai, people captured images of a huge whirlpool that had been generated by the tsunami. The tsunami washed away the sole bridge to Miyatojima, Miyagi, isolating the island's 900 residents. A two meter high tsunami hit Chiba Prefecture about 2 1/2 hours after the quake, causing heavy damage to cities such as Asahi.

On 13 March 2011, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) published details of tsunami observations recorded around the coastline of Japan following the earthquake. These observations included tsunami maximum readings of over 3 m (9.8 ft) at the following locations and times on 11 March 2011, following the earthquake at 14:46 JST:

  • 15:12 JST – off Kamaishi – 6.8 m (22 ft)
  • 15:15 JST – Ōfunato – 3.2 m (10 ft) or higher
  • 15:20 JST – Ishinomaki-shi Ayukawa – 3.3 m (11 ft) or higher
  • 15:21 JST – Miyako – 4.0 m (13.1 ft) or higher
  • 15:21 JST – Kamaishi – 4.1 m (13 ft) or higher
  • 15:44 JST – Erimo-cho Shoya – 3.5 m (11 ft)
  • 15:50 JST – Sōma – 7.3 m (24 ft) or higher
  • 16:52 JST – Ōarai – 4.2 m (14 ft)

These readings were obtained from recording stations maintained by the JMA around the coastline of Japan. Many areas were also affected by waves of 1 to 3 meters (3.3 to 9.8 ft) in height, and the JMA bulletin also included the caveat that "At some parts of the coasts, tsunamis may be higher than those observed at the observation sites." The timing of the earliest recorded tsunami maximum readings ranged from 15:12 to 15:21, between 26 and 35 minutes after the earthquake had struck. The bulletin also included initial tsunami observation details, as well as more detailed maps for the coastlines affected by the tsunami waves.

On 23 March 2011, Port and Airport Research Institute reported tsunami height by visiting the port sites or by telemetry from offshore as follows:

NOAA animation of the tsunami's propagation
  • Port of Hachinohe – 5–6 m (16–19 ft)
  • Port of Hachinohe area – 8–9 m (26–29 ft)
  • Port of Kuji – 8–9 m (26–29 ft)
  • Mooring GPS wave height meter at offshore of central Iwate (Miyako) – 6 m (20 ft)
  • Port of Kamaishi – 7–9 m (23–30 ft)
  • Mooring GPS wave height meter at offshore of southern Iwate (Kamaishi) – 6.5 m (22 ft)
  • Port of Ōfunato – 9.5 m (31 ft)
  • Run up height, port of Ōfunato area – 24 m (79 ft)
  • Mooring GPS wave height meter at offshore of northern Miyagi – 5.6 m (18 ft)
  • Fishery port of Onagawa – 15 m (50 ft)
  • Port of Ishinomaki – 5 m (16 ft)
  • Mooring GPS wave height meter at offshore of central Miyagi – could not measure
  • Shiogama section of Shiogama-Sendai port – 4 m (13 ft)
  • Sendai section of Shiogama-Sendai port – 8 m (26 ft)
  • Sendai Airport area – 12 m (39 ft)

A joint research team from Yokohama National University and the University of Tokyo also reported that the tsunami at Ryōri Bay (綾里白浜), Ōfunato was about 30 m high. They found fishing equipment scattered on the high cliff above the bay. At Tarō, Iwate, a University of Tokyo researcher reported an estimated tsunami height of 37.9 m (124 ft) reached the slope of a mountain some 200 m (656 ft) away from the coastline. Also, at slope of nearby mountain from 400 m (1,312 ft) Aneyoshi fishery port (姉吉漁港) of Omoe peninsula (重茂半島) in Miyako, Iwate, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology found estimated tsunami run up height of 38.9 m (127 ft). This height is deemed the record in Japan historically, as of reporting date, that exceeds 38.2 m (125 ft) from the 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake.

Elsewhere across the Pacific

A Bonin Petrel trapped in the sand on Midway Atoll by the tsunami, before being rescued

Shortly after the earthquake, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Hawaii issued tsunami watches and announcements for locations in the Pacific. At 07:30 UTC, PTWC issued a widespread tsunami warning covering the entire Pacific Ocean.[118][119] Russia evacuated 11,000 residents from coastal areas of the Kuril Islands.[120] The United States West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami warning for the coastal areas of most of California, all of Oregon, and the western part of Alaska, and a tsunami advisory covering the Pacific coastlines of most of Alaska, and all of Washington and British Columbia, Canada. In California and Oregon, up to 2.4 m (8 ft) high tsunami surges hit some areas, damaging docks and harbors and causing over US$10 million in damage. Surges of up to 1 m (3.3 ft) hit Vancouver Island in Canada prompting some evacuations, and causing boats to be banned from the waters surrounding the island for 12 hours following the wave strike, leaving many island residents in the area without means of getting to work.

Fishing boats moved to higher ground in anticipation of tsunami arrival, in Pichilemu, Chile

In the Philippines, waves up to 0.5 m (1.6 ft) high hit the eastern seaboard of the country. Some houses along the coast in Jayapura, Indonesia were destroyed. Authorities in Wewak, East Sepik, Papua New Guinea evacuated 100 patients from the city's Boram Hospital before it was hit by the waves, causing an estimated US$4 million in damages. Hawaii estimated damage to public infrastructure alone at US$3 million, with damage to private properties, including resort hotels such as Four Seasons Resort Hualalai, estimated at tens of millions of dollars. It was reported that a 1.5 m (5 ft) high wave completely submerged Midway Atoll's reef inlets and Spit Island, killing more than 110,000 nesting seabirds at the Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge. Some other South Pacific countries, including Tonga and New Zealand, and U.S. territories American Samoa and Guam, experienced larger-than-normal waves, but did not report any major damage. However in Guam some roads were closed off and people were evacuated from low-lying areas. In Curry County, Oregon $7 million in damages occurred including the destruction of 3,600 feet of dockspace at the Brookings harbor; the county has received over $1 million in FEMA emergency grants.

Along the Pacific Coast of Mexico and South America, tsunami surges were reported, but in most places caused little or no damage. Peru reported a wave of 1.5 m (5 ft) and more than 300 homes damaged. The surge in Chile was large enough to damage more than 200 houses, with waves of up to 3 m (9.8 ft). In the Galapagos Islands, 260 families received assistance following a 3 m (9.8 ft) surge which arrived 20 hours after the earthquake, after the tsunami warning had been lifted. There was a great deal of damage to buildings on the islands and one man was injured but there were no reported fatalities.

Japan Earthquake 2011

2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami is located in Japan
Map showing the epicenter of the earthquake

The 9.0-magnitude (MW) undersea megathrust earthquake occurred on 11 March 2011 at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) in the western Pacific Ocean at a relatively shallow depth of 32 km (19.9 mi), with its epicenter approximately 72 km (45 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku, Japan, lasting approximately six minutes. The nearest major city to the quake was Sendai, on the main island of Honshu, 130 km (81 mi) away. The quake occurred 373 km (232 mi) from Tokyo. The main earthquake was preceded by a number of large foreshocks, and hundreds of aftershocks were reported. The first major foreshock was a 7.2 MW event on 9 March, approximately 40 km (25 mi) from the location of the 11 March quake, with another three on the same day in excess of 6.0 MW. Following the quake, a 7.0 MW aftershock was reported at 15:06 JST, followed by a 7.4 at 15:15 JST and a 7.2 at 15:26 JST. Over eight hundred aftershocks of magnitude 4.5 or greater have occurred since the initial quake.[31] United States Geological Survey (USGS) director Marcia McNutt explained that aftershocks follow Omori's Law, might continue for years, and will taper off in time.

One minute before the earthquake was felt in Tokyo, the Earthquake Early Warning system, which includes more than 1,000 seismometers in Japan, sent out warnings of impending strong shaking to millions. The early warning is believed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) to have saved many lives.

Initially reported as 7.9 MW by the USGS, the magnitude was quickly upgraded to 8.8, then again to 8.9, and then finally to 9.0.


Map of the Tōhoku earthquake and aftershocks on March 11–14

This earthquake occurred where the Pacific Plate is subducting under the plate beneath northern Honshu; which plate is a matter of debate amongst scientists. The Pacific plate, which moves at a rate of 8 to 9 cm (3.1 to 3.5 in) per year, dips under Honshu's underlying plate releasing large amounts of energy. This motion pulls the upper plate down until the stress builds up enough to cause a seismic event. The break caused the sea floor to rise by several meters. A quake of this magnitude usually has a rupture length of at least 480 km (300 mi) and generally requires a long, relatively straight fault surface. Because the plate boundary and subduction zone in the area of the rupture is not very straight, it is unusual for the magnitude of an earthquake to exceed 8.5; the magnitude of this earthquake was a surprise to some seismologists. The hypocentral region of this earthquake extended from offshore Iwate Prefecture to offshore Ibaraki Prefecture. The Japanese Meteorological Agency said that the earthquake may have ruptured the fault zone from Iwate to Ibaraki with a length of 500 km (310 mi) and a width of 200 km (120 mi). Analysis showed that this earthquake consisted of a set of three events. The earthquake may have had a mechanism similar to that of another large earthquake in 869 with an estimated surface wave magnitude (Ms) of 8.6, which also created a large tsunami. Other major earthquakes with tsunamis struck the Sanriku Coast region in 1896 and in 1933.

The strong ground motion registered at the maximum of 7 on the Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale in Kurihara, Miyagi Prefecture. Three other prefectures—Fukushima, Ibaraki and Tochigi—recorded an upper 6 on the JMA scale. Seismic stations in Iwate, Gunma, Saitama and Chiba Prefecture measured a lower 6, recording an upper 5 in Tokyo.


Damage to Tokyo Tower

This earthquake released a surface energy (Me) of 1.9±0.5×1017 joules, dissipated as shaking and tsunamic energy, which is nearly double that of the 9.1-magnitude 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami that killed 230,000 people. "If we could only harness the [surface] energy from this earthquake, it would power [a] city the size of Los Angeles for an entire year," McNutt said in an interview. The total energy released, also known as the seismic moment (M0), was more than 200,000 times the surface energy and was calculated by the USGS at 3.9×1022 joules, slightly less than the 2004 Indian Ocean quake. This is equivalent to 9,320 gigatons of TNT, or approximately 600 million times the energy of the Hiroshima bomb.

Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) calculated a peak ground acceleration of 2.99 g (29.33 m/s²). The largest individual recording in Japan was 2.7g, in the Miyagi Prefecture, 75 km from the epicentre; the highest reading in the Tokyo metropolitan area was 0.16g.

Geophysical impacts

The quake moved portions of northeastern Japan by as much as 2.4 m (7.9 ft) closer to North America, making portions of Japan's landmass wider than before. Portions of Japan closest to the epicenter experienced the largest shifts. A 400 km (250 mi) stretch of coastline dropped vertically by 0.6 m (2.0 ft), allowing the tsunami to travel farther and faster onto land. One early estimate suggested that the Pacific plate may have moved westward by up to 20 m (66 ft), and another early estimate put the amount of slippage at as much as 40 m (130 ft). On 6 April the Japanese coast guard said that the quake shifted the seabed near the epicenter 24 meters (79 ft) and elevated the seabed off the coast of Miyagi prefecture by 3 meters.

Soil liquefaction in Koto, Tokyo

The earthquake shifted the Earth's axis by estimates of between 10 cm (4 in) and 25 cm (10 in). This deviation led to a number of small planetary changes, including the length of a day and the tilt of the Earth. The speed of the Earth's rotation increased, shortening the day by 1.8 microseconds due to the redistribution of Earth's mass. The axial shift was caused by the redistribution of mass on the Earth's surface, which changed the planet's moment of inertia. Because of conservation of angular momentum, such changes of inertia result in small changes to the Earth's rate of rotation. These are expected changes for an earthquake of this magnitude.

Soil liquefaction was evident in areas of reclaimed land around Tokyo, particularly in Urayasu, Chiba City, Funabashi, Narashino (all in Chiba Prefecture) and in the Koto, Edogawa, Minato, Chūō, and Ōta Wards of Tokyo. Approximately 30 homes or buildings were destroyed and 1,046 other buildings were damaged to varying degrees. Nearby Haneda Airport, built mostly on reclaimed land, was not damaged. Odaiba also experienced liquefaction, but damage was minimal.

Shinmoedake, a volcano in Kyushu, erupted two days after the earthquake. The volcano had previously erupted in January 2011; it is not known if the later eruption was linked to the earthquake. In Antarctica, the seismic waves from the earthquake were reported to have caused the Whillans Ice Stream to slip by about 0.5 m (1.6 ft).

Map based on the earthquake's Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale

The first sign international researchers had that the earthquake caused such a dramatic change in the Earth’s rotation came from the United States Geographical Survey which monitors Global Positioning Satellite stations across the world. The Survey team had several GPS monitors located near the scene of the earthquake, and one was directly in the epicenter. The GPS station located in the epicenter proved that Japan had gotten at least thirteen feet wider as a result of the splitting of the Earth. This motivated government researchers to look into other ways the earthquake may have had large scale effects on the planet. Scientists at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory did some calculations and determined that the Earth’s rotation was changed by the earthquake to the point where the days are now one point eight (1.8) microseconds shorter.

While the 1.8 microsecond shortening of the day is not noticeable to the average person, one way the earthquake and its effects on the Earth’s rotation and time of day is important was explained by Dr. Richard Gross, one of the head researchers working for NASA. Gross explained that even a difference of 1.8 microseconds is important to his team, because it affects the way that spacecraft being sent to Mars are navigated. Not taking the changes into account creates a greater chance for failure of the mission, resulting in millions of dollars wasted. Gross noted that the way the Earth rotates is not very smooth; he related the way the Earth moves to an old car wobbling on its axle. The earthquake was similar to if a person took a hammer and whacked the car's axle, causing it to shift and the car to drive differently. This is what occurred with the earthquake in Japan. The powerful earthquake was the hammer hitting the Earth’s axle, causing it to spin in a slightly different way.


Japan experienced over 900 aftershocks since the earthquake, with about 60 registering over magnitude 6.0 Mw and at least three over 7.0 Mw. A magnitude 7.7 Mw and a 7.9 Mw quake occurred on March 11 and the third one struck offshore on 7 April with a disputed magnitude. Its epicenter was underwater, 66 km (41 mi) off the coast of Sendai. The Japan Meteorological Agency assigned a magnitude of 7.4 MJMA, while the U.S. Geological Survey lowered it to 7.1 Mw. At least four people were killed, and electricity was cut off across much of northern Japan including the loss of external power to Higashidori Nuclear Power Plant and Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant. Four days later on April 11, another strong magnitude 6.6 Mw aftershock struck Fukushima, causing additional damage and killing a total of three people.

As of 3 June 2011 aftershocks continued; a regularly updated map showing all shocks of magnitude 4.5 and above near or off the east coast of Honshu in the last seven days showed over 20 events. By 8 June shocks in the past week had dropped to 13.

27 World Diabetes Day

World Diabetes Day is the primary global awareness campaign of the diabetes mellitus world and is held on November 14 of each year. It was introduced in 1991 by the International Diabetes Federation and the World Health Organization in response to the alarming rise of diabetes around the world. World Diabetes Day is a campaign that features a new theme chosen by the International Diabetes Federation each year to address issues facing the global diabetes community. While the campaigns last the whole year, the day itself marks the birthday of Frederick Banting who, along with Charles Best, first conceived the idea which led to the discovery of insulin in 1922.

Each year, World Diabetes Day is centred on a theme related to diabetes. Topics covered have included diabetes and human rights, diabetes and lifestyle, diabetes and obesity, diabetes in the disadvantaged and the vulnerable, and diabetes in children and adolescents.

26 Anti Drug Day

4 July 2008 - On 26 June, UNODC offices around the world held different events to celebrate the International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking. On the same day, UNODC also launched its 2008 World Drug Report. Below a selection of some of the events that took place around the world.

Albania - Getting everyone involved

Leading up to 26 June, a radio spot developed by UNODC and the Institute of Public Health was aired on Top Albania Radio and Top Channel. T-shirts bearing the slogan "Do Drugs Control your Life? Your Life. Your Community. No place for Drugs" were also widely distributed.

On the day, 100 secondary school students from Tirana and peer educators from Pogradec gave artistic performances conveying the values of a healthy drug-free lifestyle. The Ministry of Health delivered certificates to peer educators that have significantly contributed to anti-drug efforts across the country.

Bulgaria - Mobilizing youth

In Sofia, UNODC with the local municipality, the Ministry of Interior and the Antidot Foundation hosted an event and invited several schools to attend. A quiz was organized for the children with prizes provided by UNODC and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). School children also received anti-drug material from UNODC and the Antidot Foundation. A short concert followed with performances by children from the vocal group "Vrabcheta".

26 June in Quito, Ecuador Ecuador - Festival For Life

In Ecuador, UNODC and the National Drug Council, with the participation of several ministries, civil institutions and NGOs, hosted a "Festival for Life" in the Ferroviaria Alta neighborhood of Quito. Music and dance groups, trained dogs from the National Police and families from the neighborhood all participated in the festival, which was celebrated to the theme "Do drugs control your life?"

Guinea-Bissau - Mobilizing support for drug control

26 June in BissauThe UNODC Regional Office for West and Central Africa chose to mark 26 June through activities in Guinea-Bissau with active participation by the government, civil society and other UN organizations. On the day, the Minister of Justice addressed a large student group on the government's work to stop drug trafficking. Additionally, coverage by numerous TV and radio stations ensured that anti-drug messages reached large parts of the country.

India - Prison inmates say "I decide, I won't take drugs"

More than 3,000 prisoners showcased their talent in New Delhi in different activities organised by UNODC and the Tihar Prison Administration. Leading up to 26 June, painting, poetry and writing competitions were organized across 9 prisons in the city. These concluded with a final event on 26 June that saw the prisoners perform in role-plays, songs and skits on drug abuse prevention. The performance was held before government officials, representatives from national and international organizations, the general public and the media.

Also in New Delhi, over 3,000 students joined in a run to raise awareness on drug abuse and illicit drug trafficking among children and youth. Additionally, various TV channels helped raise awareness on drug abuse prevention airing a UNODC-produced public service announcement.

Eric Wainaina receiving the escopetarra from Reychad AbdoolKenya - A war instrument for peace

On 26 June, Kenyan singer and activist, Eric Wainaina, was appointed Messenger of Peace and handed an escopetarra . A namederived from the Spanish words for rifle (escopeta) and guitar (guitarra), an escopetarra is a firearm turned into guitar. The instrument represents the willingness of people to change and transform. Wainaina will use the instrument in his concerts as he continues to campaign for non-violence.

Nepal - Awareness-raising through the arts

A week-long awareness-raising campaign comprising rallies, sports and cultural events, street dramas, painting and poetry competitions was held throughout Nepal. Two popular actors, Rajesh Himal and Niruta Singh, were appointed by the Ministry for Home Affairs as Goodwill Ambassadors for the International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking.

On 26 June, UNODC also launched the "HIV Prevention, Care and Treatment for Female Injecting Drug Users, Female Prisoners and Women living with HIV and AIDS" project.

26 June 2008 in Pakistan Pakistan - Innovative awareness-raising

The "Do drugs control your life?" awareness campaign is off to a good start in Pakistan. So far, seminars, walks, talk shows on radio and television and various health activities have taken place. Moreover, innovative methods, such as presenting anti-drug umbrellas to the traffic police and printing anti-drug messages on millions of electricity bills have been used to reach a broad audience.

On 26 June, UNODC, in collaboration with embassies, government entities and the private sector, hosted an evening event where the main guest was the Narcotics Control Secretary, Mr. K. B. Rind. A large number of families, young people, recovering addicts and members of the diplomatic community participated.

Serbia - Wrapping up Drug Free Month

Event in the Belgrade Youth Park A nation-wide Drug Free Month campaign in Serbia ended with the marking of 26 June. The campaign, led by a local NGO "Kula", was supported by UNODC. Additionally, the Anti-Drug Day was marked under the slogan "Do Drugs Control Your Life?" in a joint effort with government entities, NGOs and international organizations.

A national campaign website was launched with the internet address: do-drugs-control-your-life (in the local language). In Belgrade, events on the day included festivities in the Belgrade Youth Park and a discussion on prevention, treatment and rehabilitation with a first-hand story from an former addict.

South Africa - One to one engagement

In Orange Farm, Johannesburg, UNODC and the National Department of Social Development (DSD) engaged with the residents of one of the most underprivileged areas of South Africa. The event brought around 2,700 people together and marked the 5th anniversary of the "Ke Moja, I'm Fine without Drugs" campaign - an initiative aimed at reducing drug use in the country.

The day started with a 5km "Fun Run" to raise awareness amongst residents, followed by a door-to-door campaign to enable grassroot engagement and a better understanding of the situation on the ground. Members of DSD, the Youth Commission and the Central Drug Authority addressed the crowd on the importance of anti-drug initiatives. Prominent entertainers engaged with residents, UNODC distributed bracelets and awareness-raising material, and local media covered the day's events.

Viet Nam - Make it stick!

As part of an awareness campaign, thousands of stickers reading "Fill me up with gas, not drugs" were distributed to use on motorbikes. Personalizing one's motorbike is very popular in Viet Nam, where more than every fourth person owns one. Raincoats specifically designed to be worn on motorbikes during the current rainy season were also distributed bearing the slogan "Do drugs control your life".

Japan Tsunami 2011

The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, also known as the Great East Japan Earthquake, (Japanese: "Eastern Japan Great Earthquake Disaster" (東日本大震災, Higashi Nihon Daishinsai?)[fn 1]) was a magnitude 9.0 (Mw) undersea megathrust earthquake off the coast of Japan that occurred at 14:46 JST (05:46 UTC) on Friday, 11 March 2011, with the epicenter approximately 70 kilometres (43 mi) east of the Oshika Peninsula of Tōhoku and the hypocenter at an underwater depth of approximately 32 km (20 mi). It was the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan, and one of the five most powerful earthquakes in the world overall since modern record-keeping began in 1900. The earthquake triggered extremely destructive tsunami waves of up to 38.9 metres (128 ft) that struck Japan, in some cases traveling up to 10 km (6 mi) inland. In addition to loss of life and destruction of infrastructure, the tsunami caused a number of nuclear accidents, primarily the ongoing level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. The overall cost could exceed US$300 billion, making it the most expensive natural disaster on record.

The Japanese National Police Agency has confirmed 15,457 deaths, 5,389 injured, and 7,676 people missing across eighteen prefectures, as well as over 125,000 buildings damaged or destroyed. The earthquake and tsunami caused extensive and severe structural damage in Japan, including heavy damage to roads and railways as well as fires in many areas, and a dam collapse. Around 4.4 million households in northeastern Japan were left without electricity and 1.5 million without water. Many electrical generators were taken down, and at least three nuclear reactors suffered explosions due to hydrogen gas that had built up within their outer containment buildings after cooling system failure. Residents within a 20 km (12 mi) radius of the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant and a 10 km (6.2 mi) radius of the Fukushima II Nuclear Power Plant were evacuated. In addition, the U.S. recommended that its citizens evacuate up to 80 km (50 mi) of the plant.

Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said, "In the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and the most difficult crisis for Japan." The earthquake moved Honshu 2.4 m (8 ft) east and shifted the Earth on its axis by estimates of between 10 cm (4 in) and 25 cm (10 in). Early estimates placed insured losses from the earthquake alone at US$14.5 to $34.6 billion. The Bank of Japan offered ¥15 trillion (US$183 billion) to the banking system on 14 March in an effort to normalize market conditions.

Nursing History

Nursing is a healthcare profession focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life from conception to death.

Nurses work in a large variety of specialties where they work independently and as part of a team to assess, plan, implement and evaluate care. Nursing Science is a field of knowledge based on the contributions of nursing scientist through peer reviewed scholarly journals and evidenced-based practice.

History of nursing

In fifth century BC, Hippocrates was one of the first people in the world to study healthcare, earning him the title of "the father of modern medicine". Jesus Christ also taught that sick people should be cared for; in around 370 AD, one of the first Christian hospitals in the world was built in Cappadocia. Western European concepts of nursing were first practiced by male Catholic monks who provided for the sick and ill during the Dark Ages of Europe.

During 17th century Europe, nursing care was provided by men and women serving punishment. It was often associated with prostitutes and other female criminals serving time. They had a reputation for being drunk and obnoxious, a view amplified by the doctors of the time to make themselves seem more important and able. It was not until Florence Nightingale, a well-educated woman from a wealthy class family, became a nurse and improved it drastically that people began to accept nursing as a respectable profession. Other aspects also helped in the acceptance of nursing. In 1853 Theodore Fliedner set up a hospital where the nurses he employed had to be of good nature. Many people were impressed with this facility, and because of it, the British Institute of Nursing Sisters was set up.

Prior to the foundation of modern nursing, nuns and the military often provided nursing-like services. The religious and military roots of modern nursing remain in evidence today in many countries, for example in the United Kingdom, senior female nurses are known as sisters. It was during time of war that a significant development in nursing history arose when English nurse Florence Nightingale, working to improve conditions of soldiers in the Crimean War, laid the foundation stone of professional nursing with the principles summarised in the book Notes on Nursing. Other important nurses in the development of the profession include: Mary Seacole, who also worked as a nurse in the Crimea; Agnes Elizabeth Jones and Linda Richards, who established quality nursing schools in the USA and Japan, and Linda Richards who was officially America's first professionally trained nurse, graduating in 1873 from the New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston.

New Zealand was the first country to regulate nurses nationally, with adoption of the Nurses Registration Act on the 12 September 1901. It was here in New Zealand that Ellen Dougherty became the first registered nurse. North Carolina was the first state in the United States to pass a nursing licensure law in 1903.

Nurses in the United States Army actually started during the Revolutionary War when a general suggested to George Washington that the he needed female nurses "to attend the sick and obey the matron's orders. In July 1775, a plan was submitted to the Second Continental Congress that provided one nurse for every ten patients and provided that a matron be allotted to every hundred sick or wounded".

Nurses have experienced difficulty with the hierarchy in medicine that has resulted in an impression that nurses' primary purpose is to follow the direction of physicians. This tendency is certainly not observed in Nightingale's Notes on Nursing, where the physicians are mentioned relatively infrequently, and often in critical tones—particularly relating to bedside manner.

The modern era has seen the development of nursing degrees and nursing has numerous journals to broaden the knowledge base of the profession. Nurses are often in key management roles within health services and hold research posts at universities.

Nursing as a profession

The authority for the practice of nursing is based upon a social contract that delineates professional rights and responsibilities as well as mechanisms for public accountability. In almost all countries, nursing practice is defined and governed by law, and entrance to the profession is regulated at national or state level.

The aim of the nursing community worldwide is for its professionals to ensure quality care for all, while maintaining their credentials, code of ethics, standards, and competencies, and continuing their education. There are a number of educational paths to becoming a professional nurse, which vary greatly worldwide, but all involve extensive study of nursing theory and practice and training in clinical skills.

Nurses care for individuals of all ages and cultural backgrounds who are healthy and ill in a holistic manner based on the individual's physical, emotional, psychological, intellectual, social, and spiritual needs. The profession combines physical science, social science, nursing theory, and technology in caring for those individuals.

In order to work in the nursing profession, all nurses hold one or more credentials depending on their scope of practice and education. A Licensed practical nurse (LPN) (also referred to as a Licensed vocational nurse, Registered practical nurse, Enrolled nurse, and State enrolled nurse) works independently or with a Registered nurse. The most significant differentiation between an LPN and RN is found in the requirements for entry to practice, which determines entitlement for their scope of practice, for example in Canada an RN requires a bachelors degree and a LPN requires a 2 year diploma. A Registered nurse (RN) provides scientific, psychological, and technological knowledge in the care of patients and families in many health care settings. Registered nurses may also earn additional credentials or degrees enabling them to work under different titles (Nurse Practitioner, Clinical Nurse Specialist, Registered Nurse First Assistant, etc.).

Nursing practice

Nursing practice is the actual provision of nursing care. In providing care, nurses implement the nursing care plan using the nursing process. This is based around a specific nursing theory which is selected based on the care setting and population served. In providing nursing care, the nurse uses both nursing theory and best practice derived from nursing research.


Although nursing practice varies both through its various specialities and countries, these nursing organizations offer the following definitions:

Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing i includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health systems management, and education are also key nursing roles.

— International Council of Nurses

The use of clinical judgement in the provision of care to enable people to improve, maintain, or recover health, to cope with health problems, and to achieve the best possible quality of life, whatever their disease or disability, until death."

—Royal College of Nursing UK

Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities; prevention of illness and injury; alleviation of suffering through the diagnosis and treatment of human responses; and advocacy in health care for individuals, families, communities, and populations.

—American Nurses Association

The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge.

—Virginia Avenel Henderson
Nurses may follow their personal and professional interests by working with any group of people, in any setting, at any time. Some nurses follow the traditional role of working in a hospital setting.

Nursing theory and process

In general terms, the nursing process is the method used to assess and diagnose needs, plan outcomes and interventions, implement interventions, and evaluate the outcomes of the care provided. Like other disciplines, the profession has developed different theories derived from sometimes diverse philosophical beliefs and paradigms or worldviews to help nurses direct their activities to accomplish specific goals. Currently, two paradigms exist in nursing, the totality paradigm and the simultaneity paradigm.

Practice settings

Nurses practice in a wide range of settings, from hospitals to visiting people in their homes and caring for them in schools to research in pharmaceutical companies. Nurses work in occupational health settings (also called industrial health settings), free-standing clinics and physician offices, nurse-led clinics, long-term care facilities and camps. They also work on cruise ships and in military service. Nurses act as advisers and consultants to the health care and insurance industries. Many nurses also work in the health advocacy and patient advocacy fields at companies such as Health Advocate, Inc. helping in a variety of clinical and administrative issues. Some are attorneys and others work with attorneys as legal nurse consultants, reviewing patient records to assure that adequate care was provided and testifying in court. Nurses can work on a temporary basis, which involves doing shifts without a contact in a variety of settings, sometimes known as per diem nursing, agency nursing or travel nursing. Nurses work as researchers in laboratories, universities, and research institutions.

Work environment

Internationally, there is a serious shortage of nurses. One reason for this shortage is due to the work environment in which nurses practice. In a recent review of the empirical human factors and ergonomic literature specific to nursing performance, nurses were found to work in generally poor environmental conditions. DeLucia, Ott, & Palmieri (2009) concluded, "the profession of nursing as a whole is overloaded because there is a nursing shortage. Individual nurses are overloaded. They are overloaded by the number of patients they oversee. They are overloaded by the number of tasks they perform. They work under cognitive overload, engaging in multitasking and encountering frequent interruptions. They work under perceptual overload due to medical devices that do not meet perceptual requirements (Morrow et al., 2005), insufficient lighting, illegible handwriting, and poor labeling designs. They work under physical overload due to long work hours and patient handling demands which leads to a high incidence of MSDs. In short, the nursing work system often exceeds the limits and capabilities of human performance. HF/E research should be conducted to determine how these overloads can be reduced and how the limits and capabilities of performance can be accommodated. Ironically, the literature shows that there are studies to determine whether nurses can effectively perform tasks ordinarily performed by physicians. Results indicate that nurses can perform such tasks effectively. Nevertheless, already overloaded nurses should not be given more tasks to perform. When reducing the overload, it should be kept in mind that underloads also can be detrimental to performance (Mackworth, 1948). Both overloads and underloads are important to consider for improving performance." Each county/ state in which a nurse is licenced has laws concerning how many patients one nurse can tend to(depending on the accuity of the patients needs).

Nursing specialties

Nursing is the most diverse of all healthcare professions. Nurses practice in a wide range of settings but generally nursing is divided depending on the needs of the person being nursed.

The major divisions are:-

* the nursing of people with mental health problems - Psychiatric and mental health nursing
* the nursing of people with learning or developmental disabilities - Learning disability nursing (UK)
* the nursing of children - Pediatric nursing.
* the nursing of older adults - Geriatric nursing
* the nursing of people in acute care and long term care institutional settings.
* the nursing of people in their own homes - Home health nursing (US), District nursing and Health visiting (UK). See also Live-in nurse

There are also specialist areas such as cardiac nursing, orthopedic nursing, palliative care, perioperative nursing, obstetrical nursing, and oncology nursing.

What is Tendon ? Effects of activity on healing

A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension. Tendons are similar to ligaments and fasciae as they are all made of collagen except that ligaments join one bone to another bone, and fasciae connect muscles to other muscles. Tendons and muscles work together.


Normal healthy tendons are mostly composed of parallel arrays of collagen fibres closely packed together. The dry mass of normal tendons, which makes up about 30% of the total mass with water, is composed of about 86% collagen, 2% elastin, 1–5% proteoglycans, and 0.2% inorganic components such as copper, manganese, and calcium. The collagen portion is made up of 97-98% type I collagen, with small amounts of other types of collagen. These include type II collagen in the cartilaginous zones, type III collagen in the reticulin fibres of the vascular walls, type IX collagen, type IV collagen in the basement membranes of the capillaries, type V collagen in the vascular walls, and type X collagen in the mineralized fibrocartilage near the interface with the bone. Collagen fibres coalesce into macroaggregates. After secretion from the cell, the terminal peptides are cleaved by procollagen N- and C-proteinases, and the tropocollagen molecules spontaneously assemble into insoluble fibrils. A collagen molecule is about 300 nm long and 1-2 nm wide, and the diameter of the fibrils that are formed can range from 50-500 nm. In tendons, the fibrils then assemble further to form fascicles, which are about 10 mm in length with a diameter of 50-300 μm, and finally into a tendon fibre with a diameter of 100-500 μm. Groups of fascicles are bounded by the epitendon and peritendon to form the tendon organ.

The collagen in tendons are held together with proteoglycan components, including decorin and, in compressed regions of tendon, aggrecan, which are capable of binding to the collagen fibrils at specific locations. The proteoglycans are interwoven with the collagen fibrils - their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains have multiple interactions with the surface of the fibrils - showing that the proteoglycans are important structurally in the interconnection of the fibrils. The major GAG components of the tendon are dermatan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, which associate with collagen and are involved in the fibril assembly process during tendon development. Dermatan sulfate is thought to be responsible for forming associations between fibrils, while chondroitin sulfate is thought to be more involved with occupying volume between the fibrils to keep them separated and help withstand deformation. The dermatan sulfate side chains of decorin aggregate in solution, and this behavior can assist with the assembly of the collagen fibrils. When decorin molecules are bound to a collagen fibril, their dermatan sulfate chains may extend and associate with other dermatan sulfate chains on decorin that is bound to separate fibrils, therefore creating interfibrillar bridges and eventually causing parallel alignment of the fibrils.

The tenocytes produce the collagen molecules which aggregate end-to-end and side-to-side to produce collagen fibrils. Fibril bundles are organized to form fibres with the elongated tenocytes closely packed between them. There is a three-dimensional network of cell processes associated with collagen in the tendon. The cells communicate with each other through gap junctions, and this signalling gives them the ability to detect and respond to mechanical loading.

Blood vessels may be visualized within the endotendon running parallel to collagen fibres, with occasional branching transverse anastomoses.

The internal tendon bulk is thought to contain no nerve fibres, but the epi- and peritendon contain nerve endings, while Golgi tendon organs are present at the junction between tendon and muscle.

Tendon length varies in all major groups and from person to person. Tendon length is practically the discerning factor where muscle size and potential muscle size is concerned. For example, should all other relevant biological factors be equal, a man with a shorter tendons and a longer biceps muscle will have greater potential for muscle mass than a man with a longer tendon and a shorter muscle. Successful bodybuilders will generally have shorter tendons. Conversely, in sports requiring athletes to excel in actions such as running or jumping, it is beneficial to have longer than average Achilles tendon and a shorter calf muscle.

Tendon length is determined by genetic predisposition, and has not been shown to either increase or decrease in response to environment, unlike muscles which can be shortened by trauma, use imbalances and a lack of recovery and stretching.


Tendons have been traditionally considered to simply be a mechanism by which muscles connect to bone, functioning simply to transmit forces. However, over the past two decades, much research focused on the elastic properties of tendons and their ability to function as springs. This allows tendons to passively modulate forces during locomotion, providing additional stability with no active work. It also allows tendons to store and recover energy at high efficiency. For example, during a human stride, the Achilles tendon stretches as the ankle joint dorsiflexes. During the last portion of the stride, as the foot plantar-flexes (pointing the toes down), the stored elastic energy is released. Furthermore, because the tendon stretches, the muscle is able to function with less or even no change in length, allowing the muscle to generate greater force.

The mechanical properties of the tendon are dependent on the collagen fiber diameter and orientation. The collagen fibrils are parallel to each other and closely packed, but show a wave-like appearance due to planar undulations, or crimps, on a scale of several micrometers. In tendons, the collagen I fibres have some flexibility due to the absence of hydroxyproline and proline residues at specific locations in the amino acid sequence, which allows the formation of other conformations such as bends or internal loops in the triple helix and results in the development of crimps. The crimps in the collagen fibrils allow the tendons to have some flexibility as well as a low compressive stiffness. In addition, because the tendon is a multi-stranded structure made up of many partially independent fibrils and fascicles, it does not behave as a single rod, and this property also contributes to its flexibility.

The proteoglycan components of tendons also are important to the mechanical properties. While the collagen fibrils allow tendons to resist tensile stress, the proteoglycans allow them to resist compressive stress. The elongation and the strain of the collagen fibrils alone have been shown to be much lower than the total elongation and strain of the entire tendon under the same amount of stress, demonstrating that the proteoglycan-rich matrix must also undergo deformation, and stiffening of the matrix occurs at high strain rates. These molecules are very hydrophilic, meaning that they can absorb a large amount of water and therefore have a high swelling ratio. Since they are noncovalently bound to the fibrils, they may reversibly associate and disassociate so that the bridges between fibrils can be broken and reformed. This process may be involved in allowing the fibril to elongate and decrease in diameter under tension.


Tendons are viscoelastic structures and are more stretchable than ligaments. When stretched, tendons have a soft tissue mechanical behavior.


Tendons are subject to many types of injuries. There are various forms of tendinopathies or tendon injuries due to overuse. These types of injuries generally result in inflammation and degeneration or weakening of the tendons, which may eventually lead to tendon rupture. Tendinopathies can be caused by a number of factors relating to the tendon extracellular matrix, and their classification has been difficult because their symptoms and histopathology often are similar. The first category of tendinopathy is paratenonitis, which refers to inflammation of the paratenon, or paratendinous sheet located between the tendon and its sheath. Tendinosis refers to non-inflammatory injury to the tendon at the cellular level. The degradation is caused by damage to collagen, cells, and the vascular components of the tendon, and is known to lead to rupture. Observations of tendons that have undergone spontaneous rupture have shown the presence of collagen fibrils that are not in the correct parallel orientation or are not uniform in length or diameter, along with rounded tenocytes, other cell abnormalities, and the ingrowth of blood vessels. Other forms of tendinosis that have not led to rupture have also shown the degeneration, disorientation, and thinning of the collagen fibrils, along with an increase in the amount of glycosaminoglycans between the fibrils. The third is paratenonitis with tendinosis, in which combinations of paratenon inflammation and tendon degeneration are both present. The last is tendinitis which refers to degeneration with inflammation of the tendon as well as vascular disruption.

Tendinopathies may be caused by several intrinsic factors including age, body weight, and nutrition. The extrinsic factors are often related to sports and include excessive forces or loading, poor training techniques, and environmental conditions.


The tendons in the foot are highly complex and intricate. If any tendons break it is a long, painful healing process, not to mention the intricacy of the repairing (if fully severed) process. Most people that do not receive medical attention within the first 48 hours of the injury will suffer from severe swelling, pain, and an on-fire feeling where the injury occurred. They are very painful when they are inflamed or not in use.

It was believed previously that tendons could not undergo matrix turnover and that tenocytes were not capable of repair. However, it has been shown more recently that throughout the lifetime of a person, tenocytes in the tendon actively synthesize ECM components as well as enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can degrade the matrix. Tendons are capable of healing and recovering from injuries in a process that is controlled by the tenocytes and their surrounding extracellular matrix. However, the healed tendons never regain the same mechanical properties as before the injury.

The three main stages of tendon healing are inflammation, repair or proliferation, and remodeling, which can be further divided into consolidation and maturation. These stages can overlap with each other. In the first stage, inflammatory cells such as neutrophils are recruited to the injury site, along with erythrocytes. Monocytes and macrophages are recruited within the first 24 hours, and phagocytosis of necrotic materials at the injury site occurs. After the release of vasoactive and chemotactic factors, angiogenesis and the proliferation of tenocytes are initiated. Tenocytes then move into the site and start to synthesize collagen III. The inflammation stage usually lasts for a few days, and the repair or proliferation stage then begins. In this stage, which lasts for about six weeks, the tenocytes are involved in the synthesis of large amounts of collagen and proteoglycans at the site of injury, and the levels of GAG and water are high. After about six weeks, the remodeling stage begins. The first part of the remodeling stage is consolidation, which lasts from about six to ten weeks after the injury. During this time, the synthesis of collagen and GAGs is decreased, and the cellularity is also decreased as the tissue becomes more fibrous as a result of increased production of collagen I and the fibrils become aligned in the direction of mechanical stress. The final maturation stage occurs after ten weeks, and during this time there is an increase in crosslinking of the collagen fibrils, which causes the tissue to become stiffer. Gradually, over a time period of about one year, the tissue will turn from fibrous to scar-like.

Matrix metalloproteinases or MMPs have a very important role in the degradation and remodeling of the ECM during the healing process after a tendon injury. Certain MMPs including MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-13, and MMP-14 have collagenase activity, meaning that unlike many other enzymes, they are capable of degrading collagen I fibrils. The degradation of the collagen fibrils by MMP-1 along with the presence of denatured collagen are factors that are believed to cause weakening of the tendon ECM and an increase in the potential for another rupture to occur. In response to repeated mechanical loading or injury, cytokines may be released by tenocytes and can induce the release of MMPs, causing degradation of the ECM and leading to recurring injury and chronic tendinopathies.

A variety of other molecules are involved in tendon repair and regeneration. There are five growth factors that have been shown to be significantly upregulated and active during tendon healing: insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β). These growth factors all have different roles during the healing process. IGF-1 increases collagen and proteoglycan production during the first stage of inflammation, and PDGF is also present during the early stages after injury and promotes the synthesis of other growth factors along with the synthesis of DNA and the proliferation of tendon cells. The three isoforms of TGF-β (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, TGF-β3) are known to play a role in wound healing and scar formation. VEGF is well known to promote angiogenesis and to induce endothelial cell proliferation and migration, and VEGF mRNA has been shown to be expressed at the site of tendon injuries along with collagen I mRNA. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a subgroup of TGF-β superfamily that can induce bone and cartilage formation as well as tissue differentiation, and BMP-12 specifically has been shown to influence formation and differentiation of tendon tissue and to promote fibrogenesis.

Effects of activity on healing

In animal models, extensive studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of mechanical strain in the form of activity level on tendon injury and healing. While stretching can disrupt healing during the initial inflammatory phase, it has been shown that controlled movement of the tendons after about one week following an acute injury can help to promote the synthesis of collagen by the tenocytes, leading to increased tensile strength and diameter of the healed tendons and fewer adhesions than tendons that are immobilized. In chronic tendon injuries, mechanical loading has also been shown to stimulate fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis along with collagen realignment, all of which promote repair and remodeling. To further support the theory that movement and activity assist in tendon healing, it has been shown that immobilization of the tendons after injury often has a negative effect on healing. In rabbits, collagen fascicles that are immobilized have shown decreased tensile strength, and immobilization also results in lower amounts of water, proteoglycans, and collagen crosslinks in the tendons.

Several mechanotransduction mechanisms have been proposed as reasons for the response of tenocytes to mechanical force that enable them to alter their gene expression, protein synthesis, and cell phenotype and eventually cause changes in tendon structure. A major factor is mechanical deformation of the extracellular matrix, which can affect the actin cytoskeleton and therefore affect cell shape, motility, and function. Mechanical forces can be transmitted by focal adhesion sites, integrins, and cell-cell junctions. Changes in the actin cytoskeleton can activate integrins, which mediate “outside-in” and “inside-out” signaling between the cell and the matrix. G-proteins, which induce intracellular signaling cascades, may also be important, and ion channels are activated by stretching to allow ions such as calcium, sodium, or potassium to enter the cell.

Ossified tendons

In some organisms, notably birds and ornithischian dinosaurs, portions of the tendon can become ossified. In this process, osteocytes inflitrate the tendon and lay down bone as they would in sesamoid bone such as the patella. In birds, tendon ossification primarily occurs in the hindlimb, while in ornithischian dinosaurs, ossified axial muscle tendons form a latticework along the neural and haemal spines on the tail, presumably for support.

Uses of sinew

Sinew was widely used throughout pre-industrial eras as a tough, durable fiber. Some specific uses include using sinew as thread for sewing, attaching feathers to arrows (see fletch), lashing tool blades to shafts, etc. It is also recommended in survival guides as a material from which strong cordage can be made for items like traps or living structures. Tendon must be treated in specific ways to function usefully for these purposes. Inuit and other circumpolar people utilized sinew as the only cordage for all domestic purposes due to the lack of other suitable fiber sources in their ecological habitats.

The elastic properties of particular sinews were also used in composite recurved bows favoured by the steppe nomads of Eurasia.[citation needed] The first stone throwing artillery also used the elastic properties of sinew.

Sinew makes for an excellent cordage material for three reasons: It is incredibly strong, it contains natural glues, and it shrinks as it dries, doing away with the need for knots.

Tendon (particularly beef tendon) is used as a food in some Asian cuisines (often served at Yum Cha or Dim Sum restaurants). One popular dish is Suan Bao Niu Jin, where the tendon is marinated in garlic. It is also sometimes found in the Vietnamese noodle dish phở.

26 June United Nations International Day in Support of Victims of Torture

The United Nations International Day in Support of Victims of Torture - 26 June is held annually on the 26th of June to speak out against the crime of torture and to honour and support victims and survivors throughout the world.

This is a day on which we pay our respects to those who have endured the unimaginable. This is an occasion for the world to speak up against the unspeakable. It is long overdue that a day be dedicated to remembering and supporting the many victims and survivors of torture around the world.

Former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan


The day was selected by the United Nations General Assembly for two reasons. First, on 26 June 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed – the first international instrument obliging UN members to respect and promote human rights. Second, 26 June 1987 was when the United Nations Convention Against Torture came into effect.

The decision to annually observe the International Day in Support of Victims of Torture was taken by the UN General Assembly at the proposal of Denmark, which is home to the world-renowned International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (IRCT).

The first 26 June events were launched in 1998. Since then, dozens of organisations in dozens of countries mark the day each year with events, celebrations and campaigns.

On July 16th, 2009, the International Day in Support of Victims of Torture was chosen as a public holiday in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Global Campaign

Every year the IRCT monitors the campaign plans of organisations around the world and towards the end of the year publishes the 26 June Global Report where it describes the events held in commemoration of the day. According to the latest 26 June Global Report (2010), at least 38 countries around the world commemorated the day with conferences, workshops, peaceful rallies, cultural and musical events, events for children, etc.

20 June World Refugee Day

Refugee Day, observed June 20 each year, is dedicated to raising awareness of the situation of refugees throughout the world. This done using solidaratiy.


On 4 December 2000, the United Nations General Assembly in Resolution 55/76 decided that, from 2001, 20 June would be celebrated as World Refugee Day. In this resolution, the General Assembly noted that 2001 marked the 50th anniversary of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees.

African Refugee Day had been formally celebrated in several countries prior to 2000. The UN noted that the Organization of African Unity (OAU) had agreed to have International Refugee Day coincide with Africa Refugee Day on 20 June.

In the Roman Catholic Church, the World Day of Migrants and Refugees is celebrated in January each year, having been instituted in 1914 by Pope Pius X.


From June 18 to 20 the United Nations Refugee Agency (UNHCR) commemorates World Refugee Day in Washington, DC, in order to draw the public's attention to the millions of refugees worldwide who are forced to flee their homes. Each year, UNHCR selects a theme and coordinates events across the globe. Learn more about World Refugee Day activities for 2011 at http://www.worldrefugeeday2011.com

What is Laser harp ?

A laser harp is an electronic musical instrument consisting of several laser beams to be blocked, in analogy with the plucking of the strings of a harp, in order to produce sounds. It was popularized by Jean Michel Jarre, and has been a high profile feature of almost all his concerts since 1981. In recent times, a very similar version has also been used in concerts by British electronic musician Little Boots.

It has subsequently been used in a number of different designs, including a MIDI version invented by Philippe Guerre, and a recent one created by Yan Terrien. They have also been used in public art installations such as those created by Jen Lewin on display at Lincoln Center in 2000 and Burning Man 2005.


Unframed style, also known as "Infinite Beam" laser harps:

This style of laser harp is generally built using a single laser, splitting its beam into an array of beams in parallel or fan arrangement. Playing the actual sound is usually handled by connecting the laser harp to a synthesizer, sampler or computer.

This frameless design is somewhat more elaborate than the Framed style, relying on the light being reflected back to a single photodiode. The fan of laser beams is actually a single beam being scanned into a fan pattern. By matching the timing of the reflected beam, it can be determined which of the beams is being blocked and which note needs to be heard. Alternative designs make use of multiple lasers; in these designs, each laser can be independently controlled (pulsed on and off) to simulate playback of prerecorded notes.

In order to generate more control data, such as a continuous range of values like those found in many MIDI controllers, several approaches are available: 1) using an infrared or ultrasonic rangefinder attached to the instrument, such that the position of the hand "plucking the string" is determined; 2) using a laser-based rangefinder to determine the distance from the hand to the laser's starting or ending point (and possibly using this laser itself as the string), a variation on this is using the intensity of the sensor signal itself; and 3) using a camera to track the position and motion of the laser dot on the hand, or the length of the exposed beam if visible, then calculating a continuous value based upon a reference. Stephen Hobley uses this method by exploiting the camera functionality of the Wii Remote.

Other possibilities no doubt exist. Each of these possibilities poses particular challenges and costs, though the first one is relatively inexpensive and straightforward to implement, and can use the same microcontroller which drives the lasers and reads the detectors.

The advantage of using a dedicated sensor mechanism is that the instrument can be self-contained, as opposed to requiring a computer to control it when an ILDA interface and USB camera are used. On the other hand, the PC-based approach offers more flexibility and can be constructed using mostly off-the-shelf hardware.

Unframed laser harps benefit from the use of higher-power lasers, as they facilitate easier detection by the sensor system. As the sensor is exposed to all ambient light, it can get swamped out by stage lighting behind the artist if the sensitivity is too high. Companies Kromlaser. And Prolight that makes Laser Harp controller, successfully avoid this problem, with ambient light and made sensor almost light independent. The use of (white or light-coloured) gloves improves the instrument's performance by allowing more light to scatter off the player's hands and therefore provide the sensor with a higher signal-to-noise ratio with respect to ambient light. Furthermore, the gloves protect the player's skin from potentially hazardous laser radiation and give audiences a more visual impression of the instrument being played.

In 2008 Maurizio Carelli, an Italian software and electronic engineer, has invented a new portable two-colors laser harp, named "KromaLASER KL-250" with only 80-100mW Laser Beams, for the company: Kromalaser. This was a prototype. After that experience he developed the definitive and powerful version of laser harp named "KromaLASER KL-450". The device features a configurable full octave with green beams for any diatonic note and red ones for any chromatic note for full Diatonic and Chromatic scale. In the second half of 2010, he has also invented a full color version of the device, fully "plug & play" and Daily Light independent, standalone models (with 1W Laser) named KromaLASER KL-PRO or capable to drive ILDA laserscanners using also Blue Color realizing the first multi-color laser harp controller: KL-Kontrol which prototype's name was: KL-ILDA (Copyrighted in July 2010)

In Februari 2010 the laser harps of M.Carelli, where shown in the WIR-IN-MILAN show

In September 2010 during Sound and Multimedia Fair in Zagreb Croatian company Prolight made world premiere of ILDA Laser Harp Controller. It was award winning performance, and Prolight Laser Harp Controller gain huge success.

In January 2011 world's first full color laser harp controller for ILDA compatible laser projectors was commercially introduced named Prolight Laser Harp Controller LH1 and next month new Laser Harp dedicated web page was made. Prolight Laser Harp Controller LH1 is fully plug&play, daily light independent, polyphonic Laser Harp Controller which can work with any type of ILDA compliant laser projector, turning it into laser harp.

Users can switch between several modes with different number of beams as well as several beam color combinations including full color rainbow mode, bi-color, and single color combinations. Prolight Laser Harp Controller’s design does not include a built-in laser projector, which enables the users to freely choose their own laser setup for every performance, whether they need a less powerful laser projector for indoor events or a high-powered laser for open air performances. It can be used with monochrome lasers or full color lasers as well.

Unframed style, "Image recognition" laser harp

The image recognition laser harp is also an unframed design, but uses a high-speed USB camera connected to a laptop computer, instead of a photodiode to detect the reflected light from the hand breaking the beam. The digital picture is analyzed by the computer software to determine which beam is broken and send the appropriate MIDI signal back to the synthesizer, which is responsible for creating the sound. The computer also controls the laser projector via an ILDA USB laser controller.

Framed style

The framed style, which is often created to look like a harp with strings, uses an array of photodiodes or photoresistors inside the upper or lower part of the frame to detect blocking of the laser beams.The lasers can be mounted on the 'neck' or upper side of the harp, shining down, or on the body, shining up. Typically, the lasers used are very low-powered 5 mW red or green lasers, which are considered safe for public interaction by the FDA. Any number of laser beams can be arranged in this type of laser harp, from as few as one or two, up to 32 or more, depending on the capacity of the MIDI controller(s) and software being used. This style of Laser Harp can be created in any size, from a lap sized harp to a room sized installation, or larger, like the installations seen at Burning Man. In this design, only an analog DC (on/off) trigger is created by the breaking of the beam (and the DC circuit made by the beam shining on the optic sensor), which is sufficient to trigger any number of events (musical or otherwise) as determined by the data analyzer/software in question. In the MIDI controller, this analog DC current interruption is converted to a digital signal, which is then used to trigger many possible events or actions. Some software comes equipped with full wave file editors and synthesizers, and can also trigger video and still imagery via projection units.

Typical framed style laser harp software functions

Play Modes:

  • Trigger Mode — In this mode, breaking a beam always triggers the event, sound (a sample, loop or MIDI note), image or video that that particular beam has been preset to trigger. Each beam will always trigger its own preset event when broken. e.g. If the beam number one is set to play a bass drum and beam two a snare drum; then one will always play a bass drum and two a snare.
  • Sequence Mode — In this mode, breaking any of the beams plays a preset melody or song one note at a time. Familiar tunes may be played by the breaking the beams in time with the song. Little or no musical ability is required to play a tune. Similarly, a sequence of images could be displayed or an image could be built up one part at a time.
  • Event Mode — When broken, a beam set to 'Event Mode' can change octaves, sounds, songs or programmed settings for any or all of the beams.

Switch Modes:

  • On-Off — A sound will play only while a beam remains broken. The sound stops when the beam is unbroken.
  • Play to end — Once triggered, a sound will play to the end regardless of when the beam is unbroken.
  • Toggle Mode — Breaking a beam the first time triggers a sound which plays to the end (or loops) until the beam is broken a second time.

All beams do not have to be set to the same Play or Switch Mode - each beam may be set up differently.

Safety considerations

In order to produce laser beams visible in normal air, a relatively powerful laser is needed; at least about 20 mW of power, depending on the type of laser and the design of the instrument, is required in order to produce a visible array of beams. However, a considerably more powerful laser is needed to yield spectacular results, generally 500 mW or more. In any case, class IIIb or IV lasers will usually be necessary, introducing a significant risk of skin and eye damage unless precautions (gloves and protective glasses) are taken.

Use in Jean-Michel Jarre concerts

The laser harp is one of the most famous instruments used by Jean Michel Jarre in his concerts. The original laser harp was made by Geoffrey Rose in 1975/6 and he coined the name laser harp at that time. Bernard Szajner made a version in 1981 for The Concerts In China tour for a track simply titled Laser Harp (or Harpe Laser in it's original French), the instrument is used in almost every concert with the exception of Aero. It is almost always used in the second part of Second Rendez-Vous, but has also been used for tracks including Third Rendez-Vous, Chronologie 3, Calypso 2, and Oxygene 7. The characteristic sound of the laser harp in Jarre's performances is generated by a factory preset on the Elka Synthex synthesizer.

Some people suspect the laser harp, as well as some other custom instruments, is a fake; careful inspection of concert footage of Jarre playing the harp occasionally indicates that striking the same beam produces different notes, suggesting that the harp is simply designed to trigger the next correct note irrespective of which beam is broken. However, this method is unreliable, as videos are invariably edited before release. As an example, in the live recording of the Paris La Défense concert as broadcast on the Europe 2 radio station, it can be clearly heard that the laser harp is malfunctioning, and in fact after a while gets replaced by a different synthesizer. In the video release, no trace is left of this malfunction. Also the harp is fitted with foot pedals for selecting scales, making it quite plausible that the same beam can house different notes.

During Jarre's 2009 In-doors Arena Tour, he commented on his blog that he "should make a few intentional mistakes for people to really understand that it is live". Later the same day, at a concert in Helsinki, the harp "suddenly froze in Rendez Vous 2 for unknown reasons".

Recently, Steve Hobley was able to reproduce a working model of Jarre's harp using a 250 mW green laser, scanner and some inexpensive components (including a Wii Remote). Plans and source code were formerly to be found here (as of Sept 12th 2010 plans are no longer sold through his website). Other amateur harp builders have subsequently followed in his path.